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USB

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USB is an external bus standard that regulates the connection and communication between computers and external devices. It is an interface technology used in the PC field. The USB interface supports plug-and-play and hot-swap capabilities of the device.
USB uses four-wire cable, two of which are serial channels for transmitting data, and two for powering downstream devices. For high-speed and high-bandwidth peripherals, USB transmits data at full speed of 12Mbps; for low-speed peripherals USB transfers data at a transfer rate of 1.5 Mbps. The USB bus automatically and dynamically switches between the two transmission modes depending on the peripheral conditions. The USB host controller broadcasts a token, and the device on the bus detects whether the address in the token matches itself, and responds by receiving or transmitting data to the host. USB manages USB bus power by supporting suspend/resume operations. The USB system uses a cascading star topology consisting of three basic components: a host, a hub, and a functional device.
Component:
Host: It is installed on the motherboard or as an adapter card installed on the computer. The host contains the main controller and the root hub, which controls the flow of data and control information on the USB bus. Each USB system can only There is a root hub that is connected to the primary controller.
Hub: It is a specific component of the USB structure that provides a point called a port to connect the device to the USB bus, detects devices connected to the bus, and provides power management for these devices, responsible for bus fault detection.
Functional device: It is connected to the bus through a port.
Advantages:
Greatly improved transmission bandwidth
Achieve better power management
Enables the host to provide more power to the device
Enables the host to recognize the device faster
Data processing is more efficient
Application:
USB can be widely used in keyboards, mice, modems, printers, scanner digital cameras, MP3, etc.
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